Textual typology: know 4 types and their characteristics

The textual typology is a common subject in the vestibular, but confuses many candidates. This concept is fundamental for any type of communication to become viable, considering the structure of a text and its various linguistic properties.

It is worth remembering that typology is very different from textual genre. The latter refers to the different forms of language used in the text and its communicative purposes.

The textual types

Each gender varies according to the role of the interlocutors and the situation. Here are some examples:

  • fairy tale;
  • Letter;
  • email;
  • news;
  • biography;
  • test;
  • editorial;
  • review;
  • report;
  • cooking recipe.

The textual typology, in turn, inserts this infinity of texts into groups of dominant characteristics. Among them are function of language, vocabulary, grammar, phrasal constructions.

To help you untie this linguistic knot once and for all, we’ll cover the 4 most commonly used text types and their characteristics. Check out!

  1. Description

The purpose of this modality is to describe, in an objective or subjective way, people, things, places, sensations or situations. The intent is for the caller to create an image from that description.

The class of words most used in these productions is the adjective, given its characterizing function. In addition, some auxiliary resources can be used, such as:

  • enum – with it, it is possible to create a picture of the description. A situation or an object is narrated in an order, as if it were a moving action, until the image is assembled;
  • comparison – comparisons help the speaker to understand what is being said. It is a valuable resource to facilitate the interpretation of the text;
  • the five senses – actions or characters are described through the senses (touch, taste, smell, hearing and vision). The speaker perfectly imagines the context, feeling or visualizing the described scene.
  1. Dissertation

Vestibulares and Enem worship dissertations. The purpose of this type of text is to expose and / or debate a theme. For this, it is necessary to construct strong arguments, attentive to the actuality and with conditions to be proven.

To convey authority in a dissertation text, one must master the subject well. Otherwise, there is the risk of falling into common sense or giving information based on “achismo”. The structure of the dissertation is divided into:

  • introduction – topic exposition;
  • development – presentation of arguments that contribute to the author’s point of view and guide the reader;
  • conclusion – return to the topic, to complete or finalize the approach.

Expository Dissertation

The expository dissertation presents information about consecrated or legitimized subjects. Its main functions are to clarify, inform or evaluate without interference from the author’s opinion.

The language is clear, objective and impersonal. Most verbs are conjugated in the present indicative. Some examples are:

  • scientific texts;
  • encyclopedias;
  • news from newspapers.

Argumentative Dissertation

This is the type of text most present in vestibular exams, and is also the type charged in Enem. This is because the argumentative dissertation tests the ability of the lobbyist to defend ideas and points of view. So it is very important to know how to build it.

One of its characteristics is persuasion, with arguments that convince the reader. Ideas arise in a logical progression and must be connected to the context.

Generally, the language used is denotative, precise, literal. It is common to formal genres, such as:

  • test;
  • monography;
  • critical
  • manifestos.
  1. Injunction

These texts are very present in our lives, because they serve to guide, instruct or dictate norms in everyday situations. They appear in two forms, as discussed below.


As the name says, it has to do with instruction. It presents a piece of advice or an indication of how to do something, such as:

  • cards of wishes and wishes;
  • adverts;
  • blog posts of tips.


Again, the tip is in the name, which comes from prescription. Displays an order, rule, or instructions for some action. Some examples are:

  • cooking recipes;
  • package leaflets;
  • rules of conduct in transit;
  • instruction manual.
  1. Narration

It is the oldest textual typology that surrounds us daily. In it, a narrator will have the role of reporting a real or fictitious event, involving characters and places.

There is always a relation of anteriority and posteriority (what happened first, what came later). The most commonly used tenses are those of the past tense.

A narration seeks to answer what happened, when, how, where and why. It appears in:

  • children’s stories;
  • jokes;
  • depositions;
  • chronic diseases;
  • soap operas.

It is important to understand textual typology not to “slip” when writing essay. It is possible to describe a situation or a scenario, as well as to narrate an event. But you need to be careful not to get lost and instead of a snippet, have a whole text in the wrong template.

Want to understand in more detail? Watch the lesson on the Textual Type of our online course and ask your questions.